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Speech disorders can affect the way a person creates sounds to form words. Certain voice disorders may also be considered speech disorders. One of the most commonly experienced speech disorders is stuttering. Other speech disorders include apraxia and dysarthria. Some people with speech disorders are aware of what they would like to say but unable to articulate their thoughts. This may lead to self-esteem issues and the development of depression.
Vocal communication can be rendered difficult or impossible by deformities in the physical structures used in speech and sound production or by disorders affecting areas of the brain that process speech and sound. In the United States, statistics from the early 21st century compiled by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders revealed that approximately 5 percent of American children had detectable speech disorders by age six or seven.
About 7. Disorders of articulation among young children were frequent. Studies in Germany, Austria, and other central European countries suggest that the incidence and prevalence of speech disorders in these countries follow patterns similar to those observed among other Western countries.
There are, however, deviations from these trends. For example, the incidence of cleft palate is very high among Native Americans, while it is much lower among blacks than in whites. Studies of stuttering that have focused on specific populations, including Americans, Europeans, and Africans, have indicated that the prevalence of the disorder among these populations is highly variable.
However, generalization of the data suggests that roughly 2. For some speech disorders, reliable data on global prevalence and distribution are lacking. In accordance with physiological considerations, disorders of communication are first classified into disorders of voice and phonic respiration, disorders of articulated speech, and disorders of language.
It has been known for a long time that the majority of communication disorders are not caused by local lesions of the teeth, tongue, vocal cords, or regulating brain centres. Since these predominant disorders of voice and speech develop from derangements of the underlying physiological functions of breathing, use of the voice, speaking habits, or emotional disorders, this group has been labeled as functional.
The remainder of the communication disorders with clearly recognizable structural abnormalities in the total speech mechanism has been labeled organic. While this empirical grouping has certain implications for the selection of the appropriate treatment, it is not satisfactory because organic structure and living function can never be separated.
Certain functional disorders of the voice caused by its habitual abuse may very well lead to secondary structural changes, such as the growths polyps and nodules of the vocal cords, which develop as a result of vocal abuse.
On the other hand, all the obviously organic and structural lesions, such as loss of the tongue from accident or surgery, will almost inevitably be followed by emotional and other psychological reactions.
Most languages employ specific words for the various types of abnormal speech, such as stuttering, stammering, cluttering, mumbling, lisping, whispering, and many others. The problem with such subjective and symptomatic labels is the fact that they try to define the final, audible result, the recognizable phenomenon, and not by any means the underlying basis.
Before the great discoveries of the 19th century had erected a logical basis for medical pathologythe various diseases were classified as numerous types of fevers, congestions, and dyscrasias. Thus, malaria was originally thought to be caused by the evil emanations miasma of the bad air mal aria near swamps until it was recognized to be caused by a blood parasite transmitted by the mosquito.
The various approaches of medical, psychiatric, psychological, educational, behavioral, and other schools of speech pathology have made great advances in the recent past and better systems of classification continue to be proposed. While this is relatively easy in the case of language loss from, for example, a brain stroke because the destroyed brain areas can be identified at autopsy, it is more difficult in the case of the large group of so-called functional speech disorders for two reasons: first, they are definitely not caused by gross, easily visible organic lesions, and, second, many functional disorders are outgrown through maturation or appropriate learning laboratory study of the involved tissues in such cases would reveal no detectable lesions.
The selection of methods in the medical treatment or educational rehabilitation of communication disorders depends primarily on the underlying basis for the disturbance. Any case of chronic hoarseness should be evaluated first by a laryngologist to establish a precise diagnosis. One exception is complete bilateral both sides paralysis of the tongue, which causes a very severe disorder of chewing and swallowing as well as severe limitation of speech intelligibility.
Major types of speech disorders
The total loss of the tongue true aglossia from injury or surgery is often amazingly well compensated. Patients can learn to use residual portions of a tongue stump as well as other oral structures to substitute for the missing tongue; indeed, some persons without a tongue have relearned to speak so well that the listener would not suspect its absence.
Several types of nasal speech are not easily diagnosed; even specialized physicians are often not fully aware of the differences. Increased nasal resonance leads to open nasality hypernasal speechaffecting all oral speech sounds that should not be nasal. Organic causes impair the accuracy of palatal occlusion during emission of the nonnasal sounds. Among these are paralysis, congenital malformationinjury, or defects of the palate.
The functional causes of palatal sluggishness include imitation, faulty speech habits, dialectal influences, hearing loss, intellectual disability, or psychiatric disorders. Decreased nasal resonance produces closed nasality hyponasal speechwhich muffles the three nasal resonants M, N, and Ng.
The best known organic causes are an acute cold, hay feverlarge adenoids, and all other nasal diseases that obstruct the airway.
Functional causes are less frequent, in the form of a rare, faulty speech habit; occasionally the problem comes from intellectual disability or from severe language disability.
Mixed nasality poses a serious problem; it stems from the combination of one cause of open nasality with another of closed nasality one may be of organic type and the other functional, or both may be organic. A typical combination is the open nasality from paralysis paresis of the palate or its congenital deficiency combined with closed nasality from obstruction of the nasopharynx by adenoids. The resulting mixed nasality causes the nasal resonants to sound muffled and subdued, while careful testing reveals slight open nasality on all oral sounds.
Treatment of nasal speech is unlikely to be successful without prudent balancing of all factors involved. This responsibility rests primarily with the diagnosing otolaryngologist or phoniatrist.
Nov 28, Speech disorders can affect the way a person creates sounds to form words. Certain voice disorders may also be considered speech disorders. One of the most commonly experienced speech disorders is Author: April Kahn. I'm not against dating someone with a speech impediment. However, I've been friends with and dated people that had something different about them (whether it was a speech impediment, amputation, health issue, or a tick), and it only becomes . Aug 11, It can be easy to forget that although celebrities are often uniquely talented, they can struggle with the same things that all of us do. We've compiled a list of 8 celebrities who have been able overcome speech disorders that plague people around the world.
This dilemma is often present when adenoids cause chronic middle-ear disease with hearing loss, while the palate is incompetent, as from a slight congenital malformation or paresis. Clefts of the lip, upper jaw, and hard and soft palate occur in various types and combinations.
Cleft palate is a congenital present at birth malformation that develops for various reasons during the early weeks of embryonic life. The causes may be grouped as follows: inheritance in some cases; embryonal damage from various environmental causes in others; while still other cases of cleft palate are part of a syndrome of general or multiple malformation, which may again be hereditary, the result of chromosomal aberrationsor of environmental origin.
Genetic influences are inferred from evidence that North American Indians Montana show a high incidence of cleft palate, but blacks as on the island of Jamaica show an unusually low incidence.
The speech disorder in cleft palate cases is complex. As a direct, mechanical result of the absent velopharyngeal soft palate-pharynx closure, voiced sounds assume an abnormal nasal quality from the unusual resonance of the nasal chambers. The influence of nasality on the perceptual and acoustic characteristics of the speech sounds has been discussed earlier.
A second component is a mechanical limitation in articulating plosive sounds e. For the same reason, the sibilant sounds e.
The child with an unrepaired cleft palate seems unconsciously to attempt to overcome these mechanical limitations in several ways. He or she tries to constrict the nostrils through facial grimaces and attempts to increase the expiratory air pressure. It is easy to demonstrate by X-ray fluoroscopy how the larynx becomes constricted during each plosive or sibilant sound in such cases.
These mechanical limitations of articulation in cleft palate lead to secondary modifications of behaviour. Other coincidental disorders complicate the pattern of cleft-palate speech. Many cleft-palate patients also suffer from middle-ear infectionand the resulting hearing loss may add the component of audiogenic dyslalia. In other cases, the structural malformation may be complicated by intellectual disability. Coincidental genetic factors may aggravate the speech problem when the syndrome of familial neurally inherited language disability is superimposed.
In such cases, the mechanical speech disorder of rhinoglossia becomes complicated by the additional signs of delayed speech development, articulatory dyspraxia, dysgrammatism, and reading and writing disability. This combination is evident in some cases following the successful surgical correction of the palatal deficiency.
Although the nasality is promptly alleviated in such cases, the various speech disorders from language disability may persist, since they have nothing directly to do with the previous cleft palate.
Management of cleft palate is the task of a well-coordinated team. The plastic surgeon closes the palatal deficiency, the psychologist analyzes the intellectual endowment, the speech pathologist corrects the various components of disordered speech, the audiologist determines coincidental hearing loss, and the otolaryngologist cares for the health of nose and ears.
Tonsils and adenoids may be diseased, leading to the frequent complication of middle-ear infection with hearing loss. This condition may require removal of tonsils and adenoids to preserve hearing. A dilemma is then created; removal of tonsils and adenoids is generally contraindicated in cases of deficient palatal closure because this operation increases the degree of open nasality. When surgical repair is not feasiblethe palatal defect may be covered by a special prosthetic plate obturator similar to false dental appliances.
Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formed, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice. There may be a combination of several problems. People with speech disorders have trouble using some speech sounds, which can also be a symptom of a delay. Speech sound disorder is a communication disorder in which children have persistent difficulty saying words or sounds correctly. Speech sound production describes the . Speech disorder, any of the disorders that impair human speech. Human communication relies largely on the faculty of speech, supplemented by the production of certain sounds, each of which is unique in meaning. Human speech is extraordinarily complex, consisting of sound waves of a diverse range of.
This technique has been known for many centuries, and various models of obturators have been constructed in the course of time.
Cleft-palate care therefore includes the services of a prosthodontist who makes false teeth for the optimal construction of such appliances.
If worn by children, obturators should be regularly altered to maintain continuous fit as the patient grows. Well-organized centres for the management of cleft palate are able to offer excellent care so that the speech impediment can be ideally or almost completely corrected in many cases. The problem of cleft palate thus demonstrates once more that human speech requires complex detailed study of its normal functions and manifold approaches for the correction of its imperfections. Speech disorder.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction The study of speech disorders Prevalence of speech disorders Classification of speech disorders Treatment and rehabilitation Development of speech correction Major types of speech disorders Voice disorders Disorders of language development Articulatory disorders Cluttering Lisping Stuttering, or stammering Dysphasia and aphasia Symptomatic speech disorders Dysarthria Shaking palsy Intellectual disability Language and mental disorder Speech of the hard of hearing Speech impediments from defective articulators Tongue-tie Loss of tongue Nasal speech Cleft palate speech.
Load Previous Page. Major types of speech disorders Voice disorders In international terminology, disorders of the voice are described as dysphonia.
Articulatory disorders Cluttering A peculiar impediment of speech, cluttering or tachyphemia is characterized by hasty, sloppy, erratic, stumbling, jerky, and poorly intelligible speech that may somewhat resemble stuttering but differs from it markedly in that the clutterer is usually unaware of it, remains unconcerned, and does not seem to fear speaking situations.
Lisping Although lisping belongs among the articulatory disorders and usually has the same causes as articulatory disorders dyslalia in general, it differs from other disorders of articulation in several respects.
Speech disorders dating
Stutteringor stammering Academically known as dysphemia, what is called stuttering in the United States is usually named stammering in the United Kingdom. Dysphasia and aphasia. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Patients with aphasia may know exactly what they want to say, but they are unable to express their thoughts in spoken and often written words.
They may also be unable to comprehend the meaning of spoken or written language, so that normal speech. Several forms of sign. The Wernicke area is in the superior part of the posterior temporal lobe; it is close to the auditory cortex and. History at your fingertips. Hearing and speech therapy can then be started, if necessary. As young children begin to speak, some disfluency is common, and most of the time, it goes away without treatment.
If you place too much attention on the disfluency, a stuttering pattern may develop. If your child is stuttering, make sure to allow them to finish what they want to say, listen to what they are saying, and then respond in a calm and relaxed way. Avoid negative comments. If the stuttering continues, meet with a speech language pathologist for support.
Articulation deficiency; Articulation disorder; Phonological disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
Speech disorder - Speech disorder - Major types of speech disorders: In international terminology, disorders of the voice are described as dysphonia. Depending on the underlying cause, the various types of dysphonia are subdivided by the specifying adjective. Thus, a vocal disorder stemming from paralysis of the larynx is a paralytic dysphonia; injury (trauma) of the larynx . A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Speech disorders are different from language disorders in children. Language disorders refer to someone having difficulty with: Speech is one of the main ways in which we communicate with those around us.
Child speech and language: speech disorders. Accessed March 1, Voice disorders. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; chap Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders.
Chick Chat #2 - Life with a Speech Disorder
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Developmental language disorders. Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. Zajac DJ.
Evaluation and management of speech disorders for the patient with cleft palate. In: Fonseca RJ, ed. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; chap
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