Think, that dating inkwells remarkable, rather valuable
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Specifically, this page addresses non-food products clearly used in households across the United States and Canada. These products were also used, of course, by businesses, schools, government offices, and other non-household entities. The "household" aka "personal" bottles category has been used by archaeologists - and collectors to some degree - for many years although the actual bottle types contained within the category varies significantly Herskovitz ; Berge ; Univ. In the end, there has never been total agreement on the categorization hierarchy of bottle types and probably never will be. The other typology pages e. This is because the "household" and "miscellaneous" categories are much wider ranging in diversity and lacking the tighter or narrower "theme" of the other major categories. Instead, this page will have specific bottle type introductions incorporated into the opening paragraphs within each given section listed.
This particular bottle is just over 4" tall and 2. Click close-up of the upper body, neck and finish to see such. Apparently, Bixby was frugal and the mold engraving charged by the letter even though there was plenty of room to spell out MARCH and the full year. These bottles are also usually always?
Click on the image to the right to see that embossing more clearly; also click another base view to see an amber example showing the embossing more clearly. They came in a variety of glass colors, although far and away the most commonly seen is aqua like the pictured example empirical observations.
As the embossing indicates, this distinctive bottle style was patented on March 6, although the patent was applied for in so examples could date back to that time at least. Click Samuel M. Bixby's March 6, patentto see the original patent for the bottle shape - particularly the bulging shoulder - and the polish applicator primarily the handle at the top.
It noted that the patent was for " Later mouth-blown ones had a body that was squattier, square with rounded corners and the patent date in one line just below the shoulder bulge.
Click squat example to view an image of an early 20th century example; click base view to view the base embossing of this squared example. The company apparently began in the s and continued for many years, using a variety of different bottles for the other products, until Bixby's death in when the company was sold to a competitor Faulkner although the product name continued and was connected with the famous Shinola shoe polish. Click Bixby advertisement to see such showing the same bottle shape.
Glass containers intended for the wide variety of toiletry products e. One major commonality within this group is that bottles intended for these products tend to be smaller in capacity, rarely being over about 10 or 12 ounces and often much less than that. They also tend towards having narrow necks and smaller bores most products being liquids and to have been made of relatively thin glass since toiletries were not carbonated and extra heavy glass was little needed cream jars being an often encountered exception to both the bore size and glass thickness.
Other than those attributes, the variety within this large group is staggering.
Thus, the coverage here will be primarily directed at some of the more commonly encountered types and those that offer some historic interest or relevance or I have interesting examples of to illustrate. The use of bottles for various toiletry products dates back a couple thousand years to the Hellenic and Roman empire periods. For example, the small 3" tall Roman bottle to the right dating from the Judea Period, i.
This large but variable class of Roman bottles are often referred to as "unguentarium bottles" as they were commonly used for holding scented oils for the body and hair as well as perfumes Van den Bossche The bottle is free-blown, a light greenish color glass, a finish that was flared with some primitive tool and has evidence of a sand type pontil scar on the base.
It is also heavily patinated from the reaction of the soil it was found in with the glass over almost years. Click the following links to see more images of this ancient bottle: side viewbase viewand top view.
As with the rest of this website, the bottles covered largely date from the 19th to midth century and were produced primarily in the United States. Perfume, cologne, and toilet water bottles as a group come in a variety of shapes and sizes that is robust to say the least. This group of bottles will often be referred to as simply "scent bottles" although historically there was a difference between perfume and scent.
Specifically, perfume was and is used primarily for personal embellishment whereas scent " commonly meant perfume that contained ammonia and was used for reviving fainting females or just 'social smelling,' i. Note: Toilet water is really just another name for cologne as best as this author can determine. However, bottle catalogs commonly use "toilet water" in lieu of or along with "cologne" when describing these type bottles. The author has no idea as to the total variety of these bottles - including all the subtle variations of major styles made just in the U.
As an example, there are scores of different examples in the Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog posted on this site click IGCo. Given that a large number of scent bottles were likely made in proprietary molds - which are not typically listed in bottle catalogs - it is likely the company was making several times the number of scent bottles shown.
Like many other type categories of bottles, this section not even scratch the surface of that variety. Instead, it will show a few typical or common shapes used during the era covered by this website.
As noted in the introduction to this Toiletries section, most scent bottles were small in size rarely holding more than 6 ounces and often only an ounce or less, i.
Scent bottles are also usually no more than about 6" tall Munsey The glass thickness of scent bottles tends to be relatively thin since there was no need to contain the pressure of a carbonated product like with beer or soda.
One exception to this glass thickness trend is that the fancier stoppered perfume bottles - bottles intended to be refilled and reused indefinitely - were often made of quite thick glass making them heavy for their size. An 20th century example s; 6. The early and fairly often encountered for such an early bottle American cologne bottle pictured to the above left is of a style known as the "plume pattern. It has an early outwardly rolled finishwas blown in a true two-piece hinge mold, lacks any evidence of mold air venting, has a capacity of about oz.
Click base view to see such showing an excellent example of a blowpipe style pontil scar. Click reverse view to see the less ornate side where a label would have been applied by the user.
Kaiser shows an example of this particular bottle with the original label for "Eau De Cologne" overlaid with another identifying it as having been reused by a South Boston apothecary for "French Brandy. The three very similar shaped bottles pictured to the left are cologne bottle spanning about 60 years of time moving from left to right - and all made by different manufacturing methods. Van den Bossche pictures a case of six of these bottles, exactly like the center example in image, which he dates from about Piver, Parfumeur " of Paris, France.
This is a style that was most likely first produced in Europe in the early 19th century but also made later in the U. Van den Bossche ; empirical observations. The bottle on the right 9. The middle example 9. It was, however, blown in a dip mold evidenced by the abrupt and slightly flaring shoulder bulge and the very slight taper to the body which was necessary to remove it from a dip mold.
It also is of very thin glass, has a glass tipped pontil scar covering most of the very slightly indented base, and a finish very similar to the bottle described above; it dates from the s to s. The final deep emerald green bottle to the far left 8. This bottle was produced in a two piece "cup bottom" mold that lacks evidence of air venting and has a tooled bead type finish dating it from the s to s period most likely.
A quick look online shows that the company was established in the midth century, was a prolific advertiser, used a myriad of different bottles embossed with their name, and sold under that company name well into the 20th century empirical observations. This distinct style of bottle is often found on historic sites across the range indicated by the noted dates of the bottles.
The following links show an example from the to era with the original labeling indicating that it was a " Concentrated Extract of White Rose ": full view including the label ; close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish. Van den Bossche also notes that this style was sometimes used for other products like balsam, oil, medicines and liquor.
He illustrated a smaller 5. At least one of these bottles was also found on the S. Republic - an American ship which sank off the American east coast in Ellen Gerth pers. This bottle was blown in a three-piece leaf mold which was a mold with three equal body portions, has a capacity of about 6 oz. Click base view to view the blow-pipe style pontil scar on the base.
This bottle has a plain, non-patterned base although some other variations have embossed rays. Those authors also noted that these bottles were used for castor oil, camphor, vinegar as a "cruet"and possibly other products. They also noted that they were blown in a wide variety of colors including the pictured cobalt blue almost purple-bluecolorless, aquamarine, sapphire blue, shades of amethyst and purple, various shades of green, and even milk glass. All the colors outside of colorless and the cobalt shades are rarely encountered.
By the time of the American Civil War and on into the early 20th century, the number and variety of mouth blown, cheaply produced scent bottles exploded with many producers both foreign and domestic. One of the most popular brands of the last half of the 19th century was Hoyt's German Cologne; it is pictured to the right.
Click on base view to see the cup-mold base conformation. Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish to see such. This bottle is the "Trail Size" 3. The company also sold a "Medium Size" 5. The pictured "Trial Size" example has a tooled "prescription" finish, blown in a cup-base mold, and exhibits a single shoulder air venting mark above the embossing and three evenly spread out on the base.
Multiple air venting marks on the base is indicative of a bottle made no earlier than the late s and most likely sometime between and the mid to late s empirical observations. The E. The trade card shown has the suggested uses for the cologne listed on the back; click trade card reverse side to see such.
It was touted for use " Like many trade cards, this one does note on the back stamped that it was given out by "John A. Child was a Portland, Oregon druggist in business as "Central Drug" from about through The small bottle pictured to the left is a interestingly shaped perfume bottle which although of a distinctive shape, is representative of the wide variety of shape and sizes found in scent bottles.
It is 4" tall, made of colorless glass with a slight pink tint, held only one ounce or so, has a crudely tooled "bead" or possibly "patent" finish a hybrid of the two reallyblown in a cup-base mold, and lacks any evidence of mold air venting. This bottle likely dates from the s to possibly early s based on the context it was found. As explained elsewhere on this sitesmaller bottles generally less than 6" in height were being blown in cup-base molds and had tooled finishes at an earlier date s and sometimes a bit earlier than larger bottles 10" and above which were typically made with applied finishes into the mids or even early s with a few types e.
Click side view to see the horizontally ribbed sides to this narrow bottle. This crudity is consistent with the noted era of manufacture and lack of air venting.
Who utilized this bottle for scent would likely be apparent if the bottle retained the original labels but not without them. The colorless and relatively modern toilet water possibly aftershave? Given the lack of original labeling nor any useful embossing on the body or base there isn't much more to say about the bottle besides it is an example of the moderately decorative glass packing often used for the noted products.
For more images click on the following links: base view no identifiable or dateable embossing ; side view not embossed and lacking the ribbed design found on the two wider sides ; and a close-up of the upper body, shoulder, neck and screw cap closure.
During the era covered by this website many tens of thousands of different shapes, sizes, designs, etc.
This example is 5. Click side view to see such which has several staggered vertical ribs defining the edge of the side.
Click base view to see such which, although hard to read, is embossed with DES. The base also shows some of the suction scar made by the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine.
The best way to understand the somewhat "Art Deco" design is to view the original Design Patent which was issued in to an apparent employee of the glass company. The patent date along with the noted catalog information indicates this bottle was popular and sold by Owens-Illinois from until at least the early s, this being an earlier example indicated by the date code.
All of the later examples would also have date codes on the base, if decipherable. These bottles were undoubtedly also used for other products like hair tonic discussed further down this pageaftershave, and other toiletries. Click base view to see the noted embossing as well as a "4" in a circle in the middle of the base of unknown meaning i.
Click side view to see such. Click close-up of the finish showing the flow restricting "sprinkler top" type external screw thread finish minus the metal or plastic screw cap. This type finish is covered on one of the Finish Types pages and is commonly seen on many toiletry type bottles dating from the mids until very recently. One of the notable exceptions to this is with the fancier, usually stoppered, perfume bottles which were made by hand methods well into the 20th century when most utilitarian bottles were being totally made by machines.
For example, the Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog available on this website has a wide array of fancier perfume bottles that were noted as still being of "hand blown manufacture" at their Chicago Heights, IL. Click Illinois Glass Company catalog to view such beginning on page In any event, these type fancy perfume bottles are considered "specialty" bottles for which many of the dating rules do not apply; click "specialty" bottles for more information.
Discussed more later. The following is an excerpt from the abstract of the one scholarly article published on this genre of bottles and summarizes the history of the product internal and external use originally!
Nowadays, perfumed spirits are known as colognes or toilet waters, and are used mainly as fragrances. But from the Middle Ages right into the 19th century, perfumed spirits were thought to possess miraculous healing properties and to prevent infection. Florida Water is a late arrival to that tradition.
Dating summary/notes: As a specialty bottle type, inkwells usually follow poorly the dating rules based on manufacturing related diagnostic features. The illustrated bottles, however, were picked specifically because they are types that do follow the dating rules well. Dating Antique Inkwells - Inkwells, obsolete for years, now prized by collectors. Aug 15, Among the widely collected inkwells are those dating from the 19th century. But many 18th century examples do appear on the market and they tend to be of a grander appearance. Homemade inkwells are also popular with the today's collectors, as they are often uniquely designed and employ a variety of unusual materials and production techniques.
Developed in the United States, Florida Water was already a generic product by the s. During the last three decades of the 19th century, many North American druggists and pharmaceutical houses produced their own Florida waters, and also sold Murray and Lanman's Florida Waterthe most popular of the brand-name Florida waters.
Two standard bottle shapes were used for Florida Water in the late 19th century. One of these forms is no longer remembered as a Florida Water bottle; without paper labels, examples of this shape are not easily identifiable as Florida Water bottles, and have not yet been studied The bottle form noted as " Examples of this bottle style clearly identified with embossing or paper labeling as "Florida Water" have not been observed by this author though such certainly exists, at least with paper labels.
The other very ubiquitous style is as pictured in this section. This tall, slender and very common bottle type is this sections subject. However, Sullivan used and referenced that article incorporating its salient facts and information into her work.
Florida Water bottles are typically very consistent in proportions in the two most commonly encountered sizes shown to the right. Specifically, the body from the edge of the heel to beginning of the shoulder sweep is about equal in height to the distance from shoulder base to the finish aka "lip" rim or top. Stated differently the finish, neck and shoulder are about equal height to the vertical sides of the body.
With both the regular size bottles pictured in this section e. Of course, with mouth-blown bottles this proportion can vary some due to the variable height of the neck depending on where the glassblower cracked off the blowpipe and, with applied finish bottles, how much glass was added to form the finish.
The typical capacity for regular size Florida Water bottles in the 19th to early 20th century was between 7 and 8 ounces; the smaller size about half that. As noted earlier, the standard Florida Water shape was also used for castor oil. The image at the following link - cobalt blue castor oil bottle - is of an example probably made in England for the Scottish company that bottled their product in it although similar bottles were made and used in the U.
Proportionally it is very like the Florida Water bottles with a few subtle differences. First is that the body tends to be ever-so-slightly narrower with the castor oil bottles, or at least with the ones from the British Isles which are commonly encountered in the U. Second, the ones used for castor oil are quite commonly cobalt blue glass - a color that is rarely seen holding Florida Water where the vast majority of bottles are aqua or colorless glass rarely amber.
And finally, the mouth-blown castor oil bottles again, at least the ones from the British Isles tend to come primarily with a two-part "brandy" or "mineral" style finish whereas the Florida water bottles virtually always have a one-part "oil" type finish.
The bottle pictured at the top of this section again to the far left is one of the earliest examples of what was at that time becoming by far the most popular brand of Florida Water in the U. It is still being produced today in several bottle sizes regular size shown in the image to near left. The label similarity between the two is striking given the years separating them!
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The stated capacity on the current product is 7. Certainly part of this companies success was probably due to the companies extensive use of advertising in the form of trade cards. Below right is one of scores of different advertising trade cards the company gave away; one that shows the bottle embraced by flowers and gazed upon by a cockatoo. This card probably dates from the s; the back side gives a litany of uses including simply as a " Click trade card reverse to see such.
How do we know that? First off, the base has a sharp "blowpipe" style pontil scar within the post-mold base type, indicating a manufacture no later than the American Civil War.
Click base view to see the base of this bottle. It is the only Florida Water bottle known to the author that was early enough to be pontil scarred. Use of the shape by this company as early as the s was speculated on by Sullivan based on her research indicating that the label was registered in New York inbut she was unaware of this example. However, this is where the manufacturing based diagnostic feature dating ends and the original label takes over. David T. Lanman - in silent partnership with Lindley Murray - was a druggist located at 69 Water Street in New York from to He did business as a "wholesale druggist" at the same address from to under the name D.
That same year, George Kemp was also listed as doing business at that address; he apparently being the "Co. From to the end of the mouth-blown era for these bottles mid s? Bottles with that embossing are found in the usual two sizes like shown to the right as well as a small sample size which is only 3. Bottles with the same embossing are also found machine-made first with the usual cork closure beginning probably in the mids into at least the s possibly later when the closure was changed to a external threaded finish with screw cap empirical observations.
The larger bottle is embossed inside of an indented panel plate mold? It is also about 9" tall, has a typical applied "oil" finish, a smooth non-pontiled post-molded base which is about 2. The smaller size is embossed within an indented panel with simply C. It is 6. These features would indicate a manufacturing date sometime between the mids to maybe as late as the mids. In addition, the larger example exhibits the distinct outwardly curved forward leg on the "R" in the embossing.
This is widely acknowledged as an informal "signature" of a yet unknown mold engraver or machinist for the companies or independently in the Bay Area doing his work between about and the mids empirical observations. All this information points towards the most likely manufacturing date range of the s to possibly the very early s for these bottles.
An inkwell is a small jar or dating, often made of glass, porcelain, silver, brass, or pewter, used for holding ink in a place convenient for the person who is writing. Teen in the context of the site is the age of the model of Dating Inkwells years - this is legal. Pussy Space has a zero-tolerance policy against illegal pornography/ Some country inkwells were fashioned after the fancier city ones, as country furniture makers copied the styles of Newport and Boston, but using whatever wood they had, and dating it so that you couldn't tell it wasn't mahogany.
It should also be noted that there were scores if not hundreds of different brands that used this style bottle with their own embossing Moss ; Fike ; Sullivan as well as untold hundreds of brands that used label only bottles; bottles that would have been this same shape but without body embossing. Hair products comprise another large bottle typology group with a wide variety of shape and size variations likely numbering into the tens of thousands over the period covered by this website 19th to midth centuries.
Some of the latter products could have been included on the Medicinal bottles typology page.
As with such products made during the era, the line between personal grooming and medical treatment was often vague. Closely related to the hair tonic bottles intended for purely personal embellishment are the highly decorative and colorful "barber bottles" used for various hair preparations within the context of the barber shop or beauty salon or there precursors.
As with the scent bottles noted above, the category of "hair" bottle shapes have limited commonality with each other besides being of relatively thin glass no carbonated products to the authors knowledge and of moderate to small size, i. They can be square, rectangular or cylindrical in cross-section although figural bottles are extremely uncommon and can be found in a wide array of glass colors. However, if there is any class of bottles that was purposefully made in the most beautiful and intense glass colors it was the "hair" bottles which were often made purposely not inadvertently by finishing a glass batch with a non-typical color like many 19th century bottles in cobalt and peacock blues, claret, burgundy and other purple colors, a wide array of greens and other bright, eye catching colors.
A few examples made of brilliant glass can be found below although as with most bottle types the more ordinary aqua's, amber's and colorless glass still dominate. The bottle pictured at the beginning of this section and to the right reverse sides is probably the oldest embossed bottle pictured on this site dating from the early 19th century.
It is 3. Click base view to see the glass tipped pontil scar though it is a quite smooth example that is hard to see and may have been reheated to smooth it and allow for the bottle to stand upright. It is also quite crude with it early flared finish, very uneven glass thickness which can be seen in the images especially at the baseand rough wavy glass surface.
This is all consistent with it's early manufacture between about to based on the context of where excavated in the French Quarter of New Orleans, LA. Developed by a London barber named Alexander Rowland, the product was first marketed in the late s with various sources listing dates ranging from "around " Wikipedia to Fike to Fadely Named for the source of the ingredients Makassar, Indonesia the product was a very popular hair product made from coconut or palm oil mixed with "fragrant oils.
The product was made until at least Fike Although a foreign made bottle it is covered here as they are often found on 19th century historic sites in the U. The small aqua bottle to the left was made in the s and is embossed with DR. Click reverse side view to see such. Jayne's Family Medicines. His company also offered several different products for the hair, often with inferred medicinal properties, including Hair Dye, American Hair Oil, and Hair Tonic - the bottle illustrated here Fike ; Odell It is about 4.
Click base view to see the mold seam which runs to and under the blowpipe style pontil scar. The company continued in business until at least Holcombe A more comprehensive overview of the company can be found in Holcombe The s bottle pictured to the right is embossed on four sides with J. The following is excerpted in part from Don Fadely's exceptional website on hair bottles see for more information; link below : "Joseph A.
Cristadoro was a New York City hair merchant from to ByMaria J. Cristadoro was listed as his widow All of these bottles seen by this author have manufacturing characteristics indicating production between about and ; the bottles may have been labeled only after that point. This particular bottle is 3. Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and rolled finish to see such. The smaller bottle was likely the same product in simply a smaller and cheaper size.
There were an assortment of very similar shaped square and sized one or two ounces maximum hair dye bottles e. Interestingly, all three of the other noted brands were also sold in larger No.
The deep amethyst or burgundy colored bottle pictured to the left is embossed on three sides with M RS S. This product was made for a lengthy period of time possibly beginning in the s as a local, home bottled product.
Embossed bottles of the Restorer and sister product Allen's Worlds Hair Balsam were probably first used about or Susan A.
Allen, the young wife of a dentist in New York City, invented the product to treat her own prematurely graying hair, i. The brand was purchased from Allen in by Selah R. The pictured example is representative of the Restorer bottles which were produced in scores of different molds during the last half of the 19th century. It is 7. This particular bottle likely dates from the mid to late s to or so. Fadely notes that in the s an advertisement stated the product was "put up in dark purple bottles" although the range of glass colors after that is very wide, at least until the s when shades of amber dominate.
The Worlds Balsam was apparently only bottled in somewhat similar shaped aqua glass bottles. The product was analyzed by the New York Board of Health in the s and found to have lead acetate which, they warned, if used continually could cause paralysis Fike !
Although many believe this to be a narcotic patent medicine the bottle reads "cocoaine" not "cocaine" as the product was a compound of cocoanut oil.
It has been used in thousands of cases where the hair was coming out in handfuls, and has never failed to arrest its decay, and to promote a healthy and vigorous growth.
It is, at the same time, unrivalled as a dressing for the hair. A single application will render it soft and glossy for several days. This bottle is 7" tall it also came in a smaller capacity 6" versionblown in a non-air vented post-base mold, "smooth base" i.
Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish to view this finish which resembles the prescription style except that it inverted in that it is narrower at the finish rim at its base whereas the prescription finish flares outwards towards the rim.
Bottles for the product with this unusual conformation date from just after its introduction in Holcombe until the early 20th century when it was likely packaged in label only bottles as this author has never seen a machine-made version although it was advertised as late as Fike ; empirical observations. The success of this product spawned imitating competitors with an example being Palmer's Coconut Hair Tonic sold in an essentially identical shaped bottle.
An example of the bottle is pictured to the above right next to the Burnett's. The bottle is not embossed but does have the original labeling which was very likely similar to what Burnett's Cocoaine used given that era of little to no regulation about such things.
The bottle is a bit shorter - about 6. Click reverse label view to see such; click side view to see one side of this bottle which is of the same conformation as the Burnett's; and click base view to see such.
The Solon Palmer Company However, this bottle was certainly intended only for the external use of coloring men's beards or mustaches. The rectangular bottle is 4. It is quite crudely formed with wavy, bubbly glass and a feature that one sees on occasion in mouth-blown bottles - and interior "bird swing.
Click close up of the "bird swing" to view such as it easier to see than describe. This example actually formed a thin membrane or shelf of glass that adhered to three sides of the bottle - the two wide sides and one narrow side. Sometime after the glass cooled and hardened, much of the thin membrane broke away the right side of the flaw leaving a relatively thick strand still remaining which bridges between the two wider bottle sides.
Buckingham Whisker Dye was the product of Dr. Ruben P. Hall of Nashua, NH. The Hair Renewer first appeared on the market about with the Whisker Dye apparently following shortly thereafter Fike Consisting of a single preparation, it is simple in application" Holcombe Don Fadely's great website on hair bottles has several trade cards for the product; a link to one is found here.
The product was sold in bottles like the illustrated example from the initiation of the product into the 20th century Fike ; Fadely Fike noted that it was advertised from at least as early as and as late as However, the product was sold to the competing J. Lowell, MA. Probably one of the most popular hair products of the last third of the 19th century into the first couple decades of the 20th - judging from how often these bottles are encountered - was Ayer's Hair Vigor which was patented in January of and advertised until at least Fike ; Fadely It was first packaged in aqua, flask shaped bottles that were simply embossed with AYER in the center of the base; image to the right.
Click base view to view the noted embossing on a cup-base molded example. These flask like bottles were about 7 to 7. Cup-base molded examples with tooled finishes date from the mid to late s until at least the mid s Fike and likely until the early s. There was some crossover here with some tooled, post-base molded bottles being seen by the author.
It appears the flask style and the colorful rectangular versions below were used concurrently for a time period, i. The flask shaped bottles had ingenious labeling covering the entire body and neck. Click front view and back view to see both sides of an example with full labels photos courtesy of Reggie Lynch. The very decorative trade card to the above left dates from the s. Click reverse view to see what claims were made for the product by the company as well as an illustration of the flask shaped bottle.
Click view of the original stopper with shell cork to see such. Click view of the rim indentation to see this somewhat unusual finish feature. The base is embossed with J. Click base view to see an image of the embossing which also includes a B above and 8 below the embossing - mold numbers of unknown meaning now although many examples have the B in the same location.
Click close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish to view the upper portion of the bottle including the ring or narrow ball neck and the dark neck label still present although unreadable. Click view of the neck, finish and stopper to see some of the original lettering on the neck label on another example which apparently was the main labeling on these bottles.
For more comprehensive overview of John C. The remaining side is not embossed and has the label shown in the image. The larger label notes that it " A toilet preparation of high standard, used for imparting color to gray or faded hair.
It was marketed until at least Fike According to the AMA the product was found to be " The lead salt is poisonous. The horizontal ring mold seam can be seen just below the base of the finish - a sure sign of a machine-made bottle. These bottle can be found in a several sizes, mouth-blown and machine-made manufacture, and in at least a few different colors, i. During the era covered by this website many thousands of different shapes, sizes, designs, etc.
Later examples would also have date codes on the base, if decipherable. It is likely that these bottles were also used for other products like cologne previous section aboveaftershave, and other toiletry products.
There is quite a bit of variety to be found in this subtype of bottles with some forms unique to the style though most were bottle types largely utilized for other medicinal or druggist products put to use for lotions and creams.
The use of bottles for such skin products and other unguents dates back a couple thousand years to the Hellenic and Roman empire periods. For example, the small 2. They can be square, rectangular or cylindrical in cross-section, and like the categories above, figural lotion bottles are very uncommon.
One interesting ct of this genre of bottles is a tendency, albeit not absolute, towards more exotic bottle colors including milk glassshades of cobalt and sapphire blue, and emerald green although just about any color except maybe black glass is possible.
As with many or even most other bottled, non-food products of the 19th to early 20th century, many or even most of these skin products also claimed to treat some affliction and were not just for beauty purposes. The first bottle covered below is a prime example. The milk glass bottle pictured to the upper left is embossed with PROF.
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It is faintly embossed on the base with W. Millville, NJ. The noted base marking orientation dates the bottle between about and Lockhart et al. This bottle is of the style known as a "French square" and was commonly used by druggists for their products and prescriptions. It was called by that name in many late 19th to early 20th century bottle catalogs Whitall Tatum; Illinois Glass Co. Click Portland druggist bottle to see a virtually identically shaped and proportioned French square bottle that was made for a Portland, OR.
This lotion bottle has some physical evidence indicating it was also likely produced in a plate mold, i. The Malvina Lotion was first introduced in and was produced until at least Fike The advertisement to the left is from The label indicated that it was a product that could " The earlier bottles were made in milk glass with later ones probably in the early s were of cobalt blue glass Fike To view an example of a druggist use of this same style click Oregon Blake style druggist bottle.
The linked druggist example is a bit taller 5. As with most druggist prescription type bottles it is made of colorless or "flint" glass.
The "short Blake" is what the bottle to right would be considered. Specifically, the illustrated bottle is embossed with G. It is 4. This example, based on the context it was found and the noted manufacturing features particularly the lack of air ventingdates from the s to early s; this style having been one of the earlier types to be produced in that type mold and have a tooled finish.
Later examples were air vented though no machine-made versions have been noted by the author. Prepared by Geo. Laird, Beware of Counterfeits. The product was apparently quite popular during the noted advertising period as they are commonly encountered on historic sites from that period empirical observations.
The small stoppered bottle pictured to the left moves the category into the 20th century and widespread use of machines to produce bottles. The mouth aka "bore" of this semi-jar is wide and it has a glass stopper which was hand ground along with the inside of the bore to fit snuggly. Click image of stopper out of the bottle to see such. It was unusual for machine-made bottles to have a hand ground stopper fitted to them; a likely indication that this was an early to or so machine-made bottle by a glass company that still had a hand grinding shop within the factory.
It was manufactured by some type of likely semi-automatic press-and-blow machine as indicated by the distinct, circular valve or ejection mark on the base. Click base view to see the base and the marking. The product was originally produced as an aftershave cream, sold in larger jars to barbers and smaller bottles like shown for home use. Apparently it was never intended for use literally as a massage cream? By the product was popular enough to warrant the formation of the Pompeian Manufacturing Co.
The earliest versions of these stoppered bottles to maybe or so were hand blown with a tooled finishes and ground glass stoppers although most seen today were machine-made like the pictured example which dates from maybe to The product was sold in more conventional, wide mouth, label only jars with screw caps by the mids like some of the jars pictured in the Illinois Glass Co.
The Pompeian Mfg. The product was advertised at least as late as Fike The labeled, colorless glass bottle to the immediate right is an earlier example of a product that was most popular during the first 3 or 4 decades of the 20th century. Hind's Honey and Almond Cream produced by the A. Hinds Co. This labeled example is possibly the first embossed bottle and dates from the s or very early s. Hinds as "Sole Proprietor.
Click close-up of the finish to view such with obvious concentric horizontal finishing tool striations. Click reverse view to see the label on that side. The bottle is only embossed on the two narrow side panels. Click narrow side view to see the A. The company also was a prodigious advertiser in magazines and on billboards www. Fike ; empirical observations.
Probably sometime in the early s production was shifted to New Jersey with the bottles embossed with Bloomfield, N. Click side view to see one of the non-embossed and non-indented narrow side panels. Click view of the screw cap top to see such showing the original metal cap.
Lug type screw thread finishes began at least as early as based on advertisements found online by the author. This bottle shape with the "gothic" style shoulders and indented panels was distinctive enough that it became a standard shape for skin cream lotions by at least See page 73 of the Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog to see their version called the "Gothic Toilet Cream" lower right corner which was also shown on page 81 of their catalog upper bottle.
The milk glass jar pictured to the right is an example of a large assortment of wide mouth jars intended for viscous skin creams of a higher solidity i. This class of relative short stature but wide body and bore mouthcylindrical or square jars can be found in many different glass colors although in the 20th century, milk glass and colorless glass were the most popular with milk glass closely associated with "skin cream" products as versus medicinal ointments discussed on the Medicinal typology page.
The pages and pages Illinois Glass Co. This particular one is about 3" tall, machine-made most likely on a press-and-blow machine and dating from the first third of the 20th century.
Click reverse view to see the label on the reverse. The author could find no specific history on the product with a quick internet search but did find references to the it and the company that produced it James C. Crane, New York from as early as on into the mids. Pond's Cold Cream was and still is an even more popular and long produced skin cream that, with a lot of other brands, also came in similar square, cylindrical and sometimes oval milk glass jars.
See this website for more information on Pond's - www. Snuff is the only category on this page that was primarily intended for internal consumption Note: Florida Water was also originally touted for internal as well as external use but was and is primarily for external application.
There are two basic types of snuff, moist and dry. Moist snuff is called rappee and dry snuff is known as sweet. Rappee is subjected to two processes of fermentation heat and moisture whereby aroma and strength are acquired and much of the nicotine and organic acids are removed.
Sweet snuff is commonly adulterated with quicklime which gives it a biting and dry effect. Snuffs are usually scented with musk, essences of bergamot, lavender, attar of roses, tonka beans, cloves, orange flowers, jasmine, and other scents. Utilitarian bottles of glass intended for snuff date back to at least the late 18th century. The large majority of bottles used for snuff were not body embossed; instead they were plain bottles with often decorative and informative labeling.
These type bottles were also used variably for other products i. Snuff bottles were also used for less processed ground or flaked tobacco for smoking or chewing although such products seemed to have been typically packaged in larger wide mouth jars similar to canning jars like the Lorillard jar discussed below and in non-glass containers made of metal or ceramic Toulouse ; Creswick.
This is the presence of embossed "dots" on the base of many and eventually most all snuff bottles made during the noted period. Image to the left of a s to s, machine-made snuff base with three dots. These dots, ranging typically from one to four are thought to be indicators of the "strength" of the snuff contained, one being the mildest and four the strongest. However, some believe that the marks are instead glass maker marks intended to track quality control of bottles produced by different machines Gloria Thomas, Conwood Sales Co.
LLC pers. They do not visually denote any specific glass maker like most makers markings and our Bottle Research Group research has never connected embossed dots with any American specific bottle maker.
Thus, being related to some attribute of the contents strength seems the most likely explanation Munsey ; empirical observations. Rectangular snuff bottles are almost certainly the most commonly used general shape during the 19th century with some use well into the 20th century, although square bottles were most common by that time.
The earlier American image to the right and European examples Van den Bossche are relatively taller and narrower than the later 19th century, rectangular, American made snuffs following three images. The finish appears to be a crude string style which was an early finishing process originating during the midth century and little seen after the s due to improved finishing technology Jones ; empirical observations.
This indicates that this bottle was likely made no later than that, i. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: side view ; close-up of the upper body and finish to see the smooth, glossy "free-blown" and seamless appearance of the shoulder typical of dip mold shoulders and the very crude finish. Also click base view to see the equally seamless and crude base which has a faint, scattered sand pontil in evidence.
The faint ring in the middle of the base is simply crudeness not a pontil scar. See Van den BosschePlate3 for a very similar shape and size English example with flared finish made about and Plate1 for a similar, taller English example dated to about Similar examples of this tall style have been seen by this author to over 9" in height but with the same approximate body width and depth. The dark olive amber aka "black glass" rectangular snuff bottle with chamfered corners pictured to the far left is an example which dates from the s based on the context of where it was found in Oregon as well as observable diagnostic manufacturing features.
Click on the image to see a larger version; click side view to see such. The example to the immediate left is of an almost identical type snuff with the original labeling. Image courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Both are examples of the dominant rectangular style made from at least the s until the early s. The main difference between this style and the one previously discussed is the ratio between the the height and widest base width.
Specifically, this "short" style is typically about 1. This olive example is 4. Both the pictured examples were made in full sized true two-piece "hinge" molds which formed virtually all the conformation of the bottle with just nominal tooling done at the cracking off point to form a simple flared finish.
They were similarly produced, it appears, as the " F " on the base of the labeled example above. They may be glass maker specific mold markings for company use, or like the "F" snuff above, a possible or likely makers mark. It may be possible that some of these figures were early "strength" indicators like later indicated by the above noted dots? As noted earlier, these bottles are very rarely body embossed but are seen on occasion.
Click E. It also is blow-pipe pontil scarred. Click base view to see such which also shows the typical dissecting mold seam of a two-piece hinge mold upper right to lower left corner of the base. Images from. On rare occasions, the typical flat chamfered corners on these rectangular snuffs are distinctly incurved; likely a purely decorative feature.
The amber rectangular snuff with flat chamfered corners to the right has the exact same dimensions as the olive amber snuffs pictured above. It was also blown in a true two-piece mold no separate base plate as indicated by the mold seam diagonally dissecting the base; click base view showing this very distinct mold seam. Besides glass color, the differences between the bottles is that the amber one - dating from the s based on the context it was found - has no pontil scar i.
Mouth-blown snuff bottles of this era into the 20th century do frequently have these embossed dots. By the s or so, machine-made square snuffs discussed below seemed to have become overwhelmingly dominant and virtually all of those seen by the author have had the embossed dots. Click on the following links to see more images of this snuff bottle: side view ;; and close-up of the shoulder and tooled finish. Like rectangular snuff bottles, square examples were also commonly made through all of the 19th century and into the midth century.
In the experience of the author, however, rectangular snuff bottles were more commonly used in the 19th century than square ones with that reversing in the 20th century where square bottles seemed dominant empirical observations. For example, only one style of snuff bottle was offered in the Illinois Glass Company catalog and it was square.
Note: The author has never actually seen the two smaller sizes indicating they were uncommonly used? It, like the first rectangular snuff discussed above, was blown in a dip mold to form the shape of the body with the portions above the top of the sided body "free-blown" like all dip molded bottles although such work was usually assisted with the use of various simple hand tools used by the blower. This example is about 5" tall, has rounded but not chamfered corners, and a blow-pipe type of pontil scar on the base.
See Plate1 of Van den Bossche for a similar American made example which the author dated between and Such ubiquity makes the assignment of any particular bottle to any particular glass company an educated guess at best. This example is a bit over 5" tall, 2. Click base view to view an image of the base with the pontil scar in the center around the catalog number.
It, like the slightly earlier square snuff above, was blown in a one piece dip mold resulting in the absence of any mold seams on the base, body or shoulder. It also has a smooth, polished look to the entire body and shoulder inferring that it may have received overall fire polishing which could have removed evidence of any mold seams if they were present.
During fire polishing the bottle would have been held by the pontil rod at the opening to the glass furnace or at a " glory hole " if made towards the end of the noted manufacturing period. This would have resulted in the base being away from the intense heat and not receiving little if any polishing which could have "erased" a base mold seam. Close inspection of the base shows no evidence of a base mold seam, which in hand with the slight taper inwards from shoulder to base visible in the imageis added evidence that the bottle was indeed dip molded.
The four machine-made square snuff bottles pictured to the left are all from the 20th century and represent the dominant shape and size during the first half of that century - machine-made ones dating from as early as the s to probably the s or s possibly later.
I imagine letters being written to loved ones, wells and dealers being created for commerce, and little children learning to write in their classrooms. That's why I love inkwells. And they are fun to collect - they don't take much room and you can still find them at antique prices.
Click below to go back to the Blog page: Country Inkwells. September 7, Featured Posts. Before There Were Matches.
February 5, December 11, Boxes, Antique Boxes. April 22, Fashioned Posts. Transferware- The Settlers' Porcelain. January 29, Harvest Time in the Herb Garden. July 9, The Settlers' Key to Survival! July 17, Ink Up the Dark. March 8, The Settlers' Light - the Hogscraper. February 1, Hannah And Her Fountain.
January 11, Miniature Portraits in Rural America. November 8, The Beehive in Country Antiques. Collecting Inkwells Some are really plain - dating tips questions just a square block with a hole in the top for a little ink. Dating antique furniture by hardware It would have had a glass insert in the middle to hold the ink.
August 31, April 1. February 1. January 1. October 1. August 1. July 1. May 1. March 1. December 1.
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