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How can we date rocks? Using cosmogenic nuclides in glacial geology Sampling strategies cosmogenic nuclide dating Difficulties in cosmogenic nuclide dating Calculating an exposure age Further Reading References Comments. Geologists taking rock samples in Antarctica for cosmogenic nuclide dating. They use a hammer and chisel to sample the upper few centimetres of the rock. Cosmogenic nuclide dating can be used to determine rates of ice-sheet thinning and recession, the ages of moraines, and the age of glacially eroded bedrock surfaces. It is an excellent way of directly dating glaciated regions. It is particularly useful in Antarctica[1], because of a number of factors[2]:.

The first stage in the calculation of a cosmogenic nuclide exposure age is to extract the quartz from a rock. This is quite an involved process and means using some quite dangerous chemicals, such as HF Hydrogen Flouride. HF is an acid with a pH of about 3, but the small molecule is easily absorbed by your skin.

Once absorbed, it reacts vigorously with the calcium in your bones, forming Calcium Flouride which may then be deposited in your arteries. All in all, not a substance you want to get on your skin!

Scientists must therefore take strong precautions before using this chemical. The first stage is to crush the rock or rock fragments in a jaw crusher. The crusher must be perfectly clean to avoid contamination.

The crushed rock is then sieved to the right size. Magnetic seperation removes particles with lots of iron such as micasleaving you if you sampled granite, for example with a g sample of sand, comprising mostly feldspar and quartz.

Feldspar is removed by placing the sample in Hexafloursilicic acid or HF on a shaking table for around 2 weeks. The acids are changed daily. The more durable quartz is left behind. A series of chemical precipitations leaves you with Beryllium Oxide BeOa white powder.

It is mixed with Niobium NB and pressed into a copper cathode. Once the ratio of cosmogenic to naturally occuring isotopes has been calculated, the production rate is used to calculate an exposure age.

This varies with altitude and latitude. Topographic shielding and shielding by snow, vegetation or soil is also taken into account. There are a number of online calculators that can be used to calculate the exposure age. The video below, produced by Science Bulletins, National Centre for Science Library, nicely and simply illustrates the core concepts in cosmogenic exposure age dating. Davies, B. Hambrey, J. Smellie, J. Carrivick, and N. Glasser, Quaternary Science Reviews31 0 : Balco, G. Contributions and unrealized potential contributions of cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating to glacier chronology, Quaternary Science Reviews30 : Johnson, J.

Smellie, A. Nelson, and F. Stuart, Global and Planetary Change69 4 : Mackintosh, A. White, D. Fink, D.

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Gore, J. Pickard, and P. Fanning, Exposure ages from mountain dipsticks in Mac. Geology35 6 : Bentley, M. Fogwill, A. Le Brocq, A. Hubbard, D. Sugden, T. Dunai, and S. Freeman, Geology38 5 : Bentley, S. Roberts, S. Binney, and S. Holocene deglacial history of the north east Antarctic Peninsula - a review and new chronological constraints. Penkman, K. Kaufman, D. Maddy, and M. Collins, Closed-system behaviour of the intra-crystalline fraction of amino acids in mollusc shells.

Quaternary Geochronology3 : Preece, D. Keen, D.

Maddy, D. Schreve, and M. Amino acids from the intra-crystalline fraction of mollusc shells: Applications to geochronology. Quaternary Science Reviews26 : Keen, R.

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Preece, and M. AAR in calcite: an amino acid revolution? Malaga, Spain. Bridgland, D. Roberts, C. Pawley, I. Candy, B. Demarchi, K. Penkman, and W. Austin, Candy, I. Terrestrial and freshwater carbonates in Hoxnian interglacial deposits, UK: micromorphology, stable isotopic composition and palaeoenvironmental significance. Black, and B. Sellwood, U-Series isochron dating of immature and mature calcretes as a basis for constructing Quaternary landform chronologies; Examples from the Sorbas Basin, southeast Spain.

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Quaternary Research64 : Lowe, J. Walker, Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall. Gudmundsson, J. Smellie, W. McIntosh, and R.

Esser, Antarctic Science17 03 : Hillenbrand, C. Ehrmann, Late Neogene to Quaternary environmental changes in the Antarctic Peninsula region: evidence from drift sediments.

Global and Planetary Change45 : Share this If you enjoyed this post, please consider subscribing to the RSS feed to have future articles delivered to your feed reader. I want to thank you for this article as it interests me very much. For further analysis I plan to subject my samples to more a highly sensitive analysis, the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to find out the Be conc.

Social Development11 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. United States. Decker, M. Sexual violence against adolescent.

Violence Against Women13 Duke, N. Pediatrics, ee Espelage, D. Dating violence and sexual harassment across. Journal of. Youth and Adolescence36 Finkelhor, D. Violence, abuse, and. Pediatrics. Fitzpatrick, K. The prevalence and consequences of.

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Journal of the American. Foshee, V. Gender differences. Preventive Medicine. Fredland, N. Sexual bullying: Addressing the gap between bullying and.

Explaining the science of Antarctic glaciers

Advances in Nursing Science31 School Violence4 2 Gaylord-Harden, N. Effects of. Journal of Abnormal Child. Psychology39 Glass, N. Adolescent dating violence: Prevalence, risk factors, health outcomes, and impli. Nursing32 Gover, A. The relationship between violence. Interpersonal Violence23 Henry, R. African Americans and teen dating violence.

American Journal of Family Therapy40 Klein, J.

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Cultural capital and high school: How social inequality impacts school. Men and Masculinities9 Kliewer, W. The role of social. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology66 Lindstrom Johnson, S.

Journal of Adolescent. Research28 5 Lormand, D. Dating violence among urban, minority, middle. School Health83 Makepeace, J. Social factors and victim offender differences in courtship. Family Relations36 Malik, S. Community and dating vio. Health21 Martinez, P. Psychiatry. McIntyre, A. Inner-city kids: Adolescents confront life and violence in an.

Molidor, C. Gender and contextual factors in adolescent. Violence Against Women4 Neidig, P. The modified Conflict Tactics Scale. Beaufort, SC: Behavioral. Ng-Mak, D. Normalization of. American Journal. Prevalence and behavioral correlates. Journal of Adolescent Health20 Predictors of dating violence among high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence12 Reed, E. Male per. Journal of Urban.

Renner, L. Risk factors for unidirectional and bidirectional. Richters, J. Sams, D. Empathy, exposure to community violence, and.

Schnurr, M. How much does school matter? An examina. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Sigelman, C. Journal of Applied Social Psychology14 Silverman, J.

Dating violence and associated sex. Pediatrics. Dating violence. Medical Association, Skiba, R. The safe and responsible schools guide Draft. Slep, A. Two new mea. Psychological Assessment13 Smith, P. A longitudinal perspective on. Public Health93 Steinbrenner, S. Concept analysis of community violence: Using adoles. Issues in Mental Health.

Nursing31 Stith, S. Risk factor analysis. Journal of Aggression. Straus, M. Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics. Journal of Marriage and the Family41 Tactics Scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of. American parents. Thompson, T. Experiences of violence, post traumatic stress. Vezina, J. Risk factors for victimization in romantic relation. Weisz, A. Peer intervention in dating violence: Beliefs. Diversity in Social Work17 Wilson, H.

Patterns of. Psychology of Violence2 Wolf, K. Family violence, anger expression styles. Journal of Family Violence18 Wolitzky-Taylor, K. Kilpatrick, D. Prevalence and correlates of. Youngstrom, E. Exploring violence exposure, stress. Journal of Community Psychology32 She previously served on the social work faculty at Wayne State University, Texas. Christian University, and Florida International University. She conducts research and.

Lisa M. ChiodoPhD, is a developmental psychologist with an appointment as assis. Her research focuses on the impact of prenatal alcohol and cocaine. PrebleMSSW, has been practicing social work since in She is. Prior to earning her MSSW, she. Peace Corps in Honduras for nearly 3 years.

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Arlene N. Her research focuses on coordinated community responses to domestic vio. She coauthored a book that. YoonPhD, is an associate professor and director of the doctoral program in. She teaches in the areas of child.

She also works with children and adolescents in individual and group ther. Her research focuses on the.

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Her research focuses on the perpetration of intimate part. Linda LewandowskiPhD, is a professor and the associate dean for academic affairs.

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She was formerly the. Prior to that role, she held faculty positions at Johns Hopkins University. She has many years of experience as a clinician, educator, and.

Having been exposed to community violence either through witnessing or victimization from such violence has been shown to contribute to the perpetration of dating aggression among adolescents Black et al.

One potential explanation for the linkage between community violence and dating aggression is due to the negative characteristics that encompass these communities. Aug J Youth Adolesc. It is widely accepted that adolescents exposed to violence are more likely to become perpetrators of dating aggression. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to violence on later perpetration of dating aggression vary based on the nature of the violence exposure e.

Thus, the relationships between two types of exposure to violence witnessing and victimization in early adolescence and perpetrating dating aggression in late adolescence were compared within and across three social contexts: the home, the community, and the school. The results showed that across all contexts witnessing violence was a more consistent predictor of later dating aggression relative to victimization.

Being exposed to violence in the home either via observation or victimization was a stronger predictor of physical dating aggression and threatening behaviors compared to being exposed to violence in the school. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the roles of various forms of exposure to violence during early adolescence in perpetrating dating aggression later in the life course.

Full-text available. Tracy Andra Teten Tharp. Introduction: Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem with few effective prevention strategies.

This study examines whether the Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model, compared with a standard of care intervention, prevented negative relationship behaviors and promoted positive relationship behaviors. Study design: This longitudinal, cluster-RCT compared the effectiveness of Dating Matters with standard of care across middle school. Standard of care was an evidence-based teen dating violence prevention curriculum Safe Dates implemented in eighth grade. Main outcome measures: Self-reported teen dating violence perpetration and victimization, use of negative conflict resolution strategies, and positive relationship skills were examined as outcomes.

Imputation and analyses were conducted in Results: Latent panel models demonstrated significant program effects for three of four outcomes; Dating Matters students reported 8. There were no significant effects on positive relationship behaviors. Conclusions: Dating Matters demonstrates comparative effectiveness, through middle school, for reducing unhealthy relationship behaviors, such as teen dating violence and use of negative conflict resolution strategies, relative to the standard of care intervention.

Trial registration: This study is registered at www. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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The findings also showed that exposure to most of the types of community violence was significantly higher among boys than among girls. These findings are consistent with the results of other studies Leshem et al. Palestinian adolescents' exposure to community violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms: Parental factors as mediators. Background: In this study, we examined the associations of parents' and adolescents' exposure to community violence CV with externalizing and internalizing symptoms among adolescents agedand the mediating role of some parental factors in these relationships.

The study was based on the secondary trauma perspective in explaining parents' exposure to CV and its implications on their offspring. Method: Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a semi-systematic random sample of Palestinian parent-adolescent dyads from Israel. Results: The findings revealed that most of the Palestinian adolescents had witnessed CV, and more than one-third of them directly experienced such violence during their lifetime. Most of the parents had also witnessed such violence, and almost half of them directly experienced such violence during their lifetime.

For parents and adolescents, greater exposure to CV was associated with more internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents. Additionally, results of path analysis indicate that parental stress mediated the correlation between the adolescents' direct experience with CV and internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and it mediated the correlation of the parents' direct experience with CV and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among their adolescent offspring.

Conclusions: The strengths and limitations of the study and their implications for future research are discussed.

The implications of the results for prevention and intervention are also discussed. African Americans' Perceptions of School Counseling African Americans are more likely than other racial groups to experience an event i.

A National Study. Jan Qi Shi Ramon B Goings. To investigate the topics that African American ninth graders discuss during individual counseling sessions, we used the High School Longitudinal Study of Results showed that ninth-grade African American students most frequently talked with school counselors about going to college, math courses, and other courses.

African American male students were more likely than female students to talk to school counselors about science courses. Socioeconomic status and school belonging had significant impact on the topics African American students raised in individual counseling sessions. We provide discussion and implications for school counselors. Social disorganization theory provides one framework for understanding the relationship between neighborhood structural disadvantage and adolescent dating violence.

In addition, these structural neighborhood characteristics may impede the values and norms of a community: violence may be seen as expected, tolerated or necessary Berg et al. Mar Am J Community Psychol. Gregory Michael Schoeny.

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The link between relationship violence and cts of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage e. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology.

Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context.

Participants included adult residents in 30 census tracts and adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence.

A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. Heather L. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify primary themes across the interviews.

Analysis involved multiple rounds of iterative coding and the clustering of thematic constructs. Susybel R. The current study sought to address the roles of PTSD symptoms, low sleep quantity, and poor sleep quality in the association between community violence exposure and college academic performance. Findings indicate that students were exposed to multiple types of community violence and other potentially traumatic events.

There was a significant association between community violence exposure and lower GPA, but this association was not directly mediated by accounting for sleep difficulties. Findings may be influenced by sex and race differences. Our findings suggest that screening for community violence exposure among college students might identify students who may benefit from greater academic support as well as greater psychological support.

Sep J Prim Prev. Shanti J. Teen dating violence TDV is a serious public health issue associated with negative physical and behavior outcomes that disproportionately impact African-American adolescents.

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Despite the emergence of effective TDV prevention strategies, more knowledge is needed about how African American adolescents understand healthy and unhealthy relationships. We transcribed focus group interviews verbatim and coded them line by line. Consistent with other studies, participants reported significant engagement across traditional and social media platforms that exposed them to a wide variety of fictional, celebrity, and peer relationships.

A modified constructivist grounded theory analytic approach produced four major relationship themes: commitment, authenticity, privacy, and maturity.

Results show that adolescents are using media representations of romantic couples to clarify their own romantic relationship expectations and desires.

Dec Asia A. Eaton Dionne P. Jan Pediatrics. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Jay G. Context Intimate partner violence against women is a major public health concern. Research among adults has shown that younger age is a consistent risk factor for experiencing and perpetrating intimate partner violence. However, no representative epidemiologic studies of lifetime prevalence of dating violence among adolescents have been conducted.

Objective To assess lifetime prevalence of physical and sexual violence from dating partners among adolescent girls and associations of these forms of violence with specific health risks. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime prevalence rates of physical and sexual dating violence and whether such violence is independently associated with substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality.

Results Approximately 1 in 5 female students After controlling for the effects of potentially confounding demographics and risk behaviors, data from both surveys indicate that physical and sexual dating violence against adolescent girls is associated with increased risk of substance use eg, cocaine use forodds ratio [OR], 4.

Conclusion Dating violence is extremely prevalent among this population, and adolescent girls who report a history of experiencing dating violence are more likely to exhibit other serious health risk behaviors. James M. Social factor differences between respondents with and without courtship violence experience and between male offenders and female victims were explored.

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Data from the Seven College Survey revealed that those with courtship violence experience victims and offenders exhibit relatively "problematic" social profiles. Especially significant were race, religion, social stress, isolation, disrupted home, distant-harsh parenting, early dating, and school, employment, and alcohol problems.

Offenders differed from victims in closeness to male parents and frequency of church attendance. Implications for relevance of the theory of patriarchy to courtship, and for parent education and the counseling professions are discussed. Family socialization, which includes parental control and support, plays an important role in reducing the likelihood of adolescent involvement in conflict.

This study examined the strategies that urban parents living in neighborhoods with high crime rates suggest to help their adolescent children avoid or deescalate conflict. Dyads responded to three video-taped scenarios depicting youth in potential conflict situations. Qualitative methods were used to identify 11 strategies parents suggested to help youth avoid or deescalate conflict. Although the majority of parents advocated for nonviolent solutions, these same parents described situations in which their child may need to use violence.

These findings have important implications for family-focused violence prevention programs. History of dating violence and the association with late adolescent health. The sample comprised subjects ages 18 to 21; mean age, For both females and males, non-physical dating violence victimization contributed to poor health. Jul J Sch Violence. Nina Fredland Izabel B. This article reports qualitative findings of seven focus groups that illuminate the phenomenon of dating and dating violence from the perspective of the young adolescent.

Concepts of interest included: dating norms, ecological factors, elements of healthy and unhealthy relationships, and prevention strategies. Four themes emerged: respect versus disrespect, influence of friends, cost and benefit of sexual activity and violence as an acceptable response. The implications of this data highlight the need for school personnel to increase their awareness and understanding of the challenges middle school youth face. Dating violence prevention programs should be designed accordingly.

African Americans and Teen Dating Violence. This literature review focuses on the prevalence rates of teen dating violence in the United States, emergence of dating violence research, reasons of teen dating violence in the African American community, consequences of it regarding physical and mental health, and the impact of it on psychological and physical health.

The research shows a trickledown effect of racism, low socio-economic status, and growing up in poor neighborhoods leading to domestic violence in African American families, which then gets reinforced with messages received from peers and the media. Numerous variables belonging to one of three domains were entered into hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Females were more likely to be violent toward a dating partner when they believed that female-to-male dating violence was justifiable and that male-to-female violence was not justifiable; experienced more conflict in the dating relationship; were the recipients of dating violence; used alcohol or drugs; and felt the relationship was more serious.

The context of the violence was also examined and the implications of the study were addressed.

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Jessie Klein. This analysis of male peer hierarchies in schools argues that battles for cultural capital are a significant causal factor in the spate of school shootings across the United States between and The hallmarks of normalized masculinity-hypermasculine identification, athletics, fighting, distance from homosexuality, dominant relationships with girls, socioeconomic status, and disdain for academics-do not include alternative ways to build cultural capital when young men do not fit into rigid traditional social structures.

The analysis concludes with positive directions for change including pedagogical strategies. Welcome back! Please log in.

Sep 08,   Nude Is the New Black: Are Naked Reality Shows Exposing Too Much? From dating to surviving in the wilderness, contestants are baring it all. Surface exposure dating is a collection of geochronological techniques for estimating the length of time that a rock has been exposed at or near Earth's surface. Surface exposure dating is used to date glacial advances and retreats, erosion history, lava flows, meteorite impacts, rock slides, fault scarps, cave development, and other geological events. Apr 28,   Interracial Dating Study: Blacks are Least Desirable ; Whites Most Wanted, even by 'Honorary Whites' "This willingness may be due Author: Jay Jay Ghatt.

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